It iH true that in the last war, when we d ecided to set submarines t o oatoh the U- boat~, we built a small " R " class which had a designed speed below water of 15 krwts, but these , were small boat s and the increase in submerged speed was only achieved at the expense of nearly all the surface speed and the fitting of enormous batteries which took an unconscionable t ime to charge. The full speed of 16 knots submerged, can of course, only be maintained for a very few r,ninutos, but those minutes might well enable the submarine to evade its hunterH. The very fast submerged spoed is, in fact, more of a defensive than an offensive characteristic, although it would, of course, be of the utmost use on occasions when attacking, particularly if the target ship was sighted late and passing a long way off or altered course away during the attack .
T is perhaps inevita ble that a nation in which of battorie1:1 . Then why not have more every thing has boon for long koyed t o a batteries 1 single aim and a single arm, should be a blo t o It is all delightfully simplo, and yet a cornproduce something better in this specialise~ •bination of these innovations has produced cat egory than the experts of a nation in an underwater craft which is, quit e litorally, which research, design, and construction revolutionary in many points of design and have necossarily been spread over a. wide of performance. field.. The contrast betwoen Germany and The writor r ecently had the opportunity • Great Britain is one of highly specialised of spending several hours in making a det ailed effort on the one hand, as against a potential examination of one of the t ype" 21 "U-boats. which has had to be used sparingly in certain This was the lat est ocean-going form (apart fields in order that there should bo enough from experimental craft) which was in producof everything. Nobody can visit the German tion in Germany, and only a few of them were ports without realising that a very high pro- in commission at the time of the surrender . A ccELERATION portion of the whole war potential of the Only one had complet ed an extended cruise, It is rather extraordinary that in th.is type country was devot ed to the production of which had been in the nature of a trial of the U-boats, and that designers and constructors new type. This was " U . 3008," which was of U-boat it is apparently possible to accelerhad been given a far greater degree of freedom the vessel examined. rrhe Germans obviously ate quickly t o this full speed and then to than has over been accorded to them on this thought very highly of this t ype, for they decelerate again without having unduo trouble with the depth keeping. When a side of the North Sea. In Germany, U-boats had ordered no less than 200 of them. were not only " priority one " -they held rrhis U-boat had some features which were submerged submarine su'ddenly increases her . nearly all the priorities, and the regimenta- quite revolutionary in submarine practice, speed there is an inevitable t endency for the tion required of constructors of prefabricat ed and a performance which was regarded as bows t o rise. The effect of this angle up by parts was more than balanced by the very legendary until it had been established the bow is accentuated by the increasing speed and the submarine has a dangerous free hand given to the designers. One can beyond possibility of doubt. · hardly imagine a U-boat designer, having Before giving any det ailed description of tendency to break surface out of control, perfected some new "gadget " which had this boat and her fittings it may be as well t o particularly in a large and long vessel. This been proved to be of value during sea trials, outline some of the facts which seemed so tendency must , in the nature of things, be having to pursue the matter through various astonishing to those accust omed t o the more common to all types of submarines and it can Government compartments and compete with orthodox submarine design and compare only be reduced by design- nover eradicated. the production of all manner of other goods, them with the latest available information It is duo to the fact that a. submarine must both in the material an.d in the labour regarding our own submarines. have a conning tower and bridge. In other market. words, there must always be an excrescence, P.EE D, D EPTH, AND E N D lJRANOE It is therefore no reflection upon British which, on sudden acceleration, leads to an designers of submarines t o say that, in some The t ype " 21 " U-boat is a vessel of increased water pressure well above the line directions, German submarine d esign and approximat ely 1600 tons displacement when of thrust of the screws, so t hat there is a construction, as discovered and studied by on the surface. H er speed on the surface, marked upward turning moment. British experts after the surrender of Ger- even with a supercharger, is slow by comIn any submarine t he hydroplanes have to many, is ahead of that of Groat Britain. Ono parison with the equi valent British and bo given " dive angle" on a sudden increase must observe the qualifying phrase " in some American t ypos, and she is not fitted with a of speed when submerged. It is probable directions,'' and avoid the pitfall of thinking gun of a size which would make her capable that in U-boats of this t ype, the hydroplanes that everything that is novel is necessarily uf engaging a ship. Neither of these facts is are put to " hard to dive " as the acceleration good. surprising, for there is no doubt that the begins to take effect . Were tliis not done In the t y pe " 21 " U-boat , for inst ance, t y pe "21 "U-boat is not designed for surface there is no doubt that a large submarine which was the largest and the latest in pro- work. She was not oven expected t o proceed which increased its submerged speed suddenly Ciluotion, there are many things which make on the surface when going to and from her from 4 or 5 knots t o 16 knots would inevitthe mouths of British submarine officers operational area. She is, in fact, a submarine ably shoot to the surface out of control and water. On the other hand, there are many in the true sense of the word, rather than a with a very big angle up by the bow. One British submarine officers who would criticise submersible . wonders whether some of the tales one has . the design with some justice on certain 'rhis submarine was not designed to come heard ofU-boats breaking surface at astonishgrounds- notably that the offensive arma- t o the surfaco except when entering or ing angles up by the bow have not had their ment is comparatively small for the size of leaving harbour, or, of course, if t emporary origin in the unexpectedly high rat e of subthe craft.' outside repairs had to be done at sea. In the merged acceleration of which many of them There is no doubt, however, that we have normal course of events "U. 3008 " could were capable. . much t o learn from the captured U-boats. remain at sea for five months without ever This t endency to break surface on acooloraIt may be a hard saying, but in the forcing coming to the surface and the German officers tion opens up another t rain of thought. The house of war German designers have solved averred that, if every nook and cranny in the effect of hydroplanes and of an angle on a problems which we have long considered submarine were packed with provisions, the ::Jubmarine increases rapidly with an increase insoluble. It is curious, t oo, to notice that submarine would be able to remain at sea- in the speed of the vessel. If the hydrothe German solutions are ao frequently pro- submerged all the time, if necessary- for as planes have t o be put to " hard to dive" and duced by simplicity and a ruthless reversion long as nine months. This, however, had not an angle down by the bow put on tho subte first principles. been done, and the records of U-boats which marine as the order to increase to full speed Let us consider, for instance, the have been surrendered d o not contain any is givon it is quite possible that theso would " sohnorkel. " The great " secret " about reference to a U-boat remaining submerged for more than override the upward moment. this device turned out on examination to be more than sevent y days. They certainly would override it at some point nothing moro than the adaptation of a prinThe U- boats of this type were actually between the beginning and the end of the ciple which is brought into use by every body, tested t o a depth of 900ft., whereas British period of acceleration, the actual moment of every time they pull a lavatory plug I Con- submarines are test ed to 200ft. and 300ft. override being dependent upon the hull and sider also the question of the phenomenal according to t ype. In emergency, the t y pe conning tower form and the design of the submerged speed of this very largo t ype '' 21 '' "21 " U-boat is oapablo ·of a submerged hydroplanes. The moment this override U-boat. It is obvious that the Germans have speed of 16 knots, although, of course, only comes into play t he angle on the submarine, argued the matter something like this :- for a short time. When one considers that the angle and offeot of the hydroplanes, and If, a.s is common submarine practice, one can tho fastest underwater speed of the normal the increase of speed will all t ond to drive the greatly increase the submerged speed by submarine is in the nature of 8 or 9 knots, one submarine down, and in a long submarine it grouping the batteries, one can get an even begins to appreciate that the figure of 16 is almost certain that control would be lost higher speed range by grouping the batteries knots for the full speed when submerged of a for a time. Is it not more than likely that yet again. But in the usual submarine this vessel of more than 1600 tons is really appreciation of this danger-a danger which • (,annot be done, because of the limited number amazmg. led to disaster in more than ono of the big fast
British " K" class submarines- is the reason for t esting the hulls of the big U-boats t o the great depth of 900ft.1 The ability to dive safely to great depth has, of course, other advantages. There have been a. great many occasions during the war when we have heard ofU-boats being " blown to the surface" by depth charges. There have probably been occasions on which this has been due to the emergency blowing of the submarine's tanks in a. desire to reach the surface and save life after the vessel has received crippling damage. The words " blown to the surface by depth charge attack'' which have appeared in several official announcements, however, definitely suggest that the depth charges have exploded beneath the submarine and that their explosion has forced the submarine up until it has broken surface. This is perfectly feasible, not to say desirable. Moreover, there is no denying that the effect of a depth charge beneath a submarine, where the sea pressure is already large and where the space for the explosion between the hull and the sea. bed may be limited, is apt to be greater- and certainly more satisfying to the attackers-than the explosion of depth charges above the vessel. It is therefore quite possible that the tested depth of the new U-boats has a definite relationship with the German information of the deep depth settings normally used on our depth charges. Some of the capabilities of the U-boa.ts of this t ype are almost reminiscent of the fancies of J ules Verne-nine months below the surface, capable of 16 knots under water in emergency, and safe at a depth of 900ft. These were qualifications so high that they would have been deemed impossible a short time ago. The Germans were forced to make them possible and workable, a.nd they were forced to integrate other factors in their design and building in order that they should fit in with the general conception of the possibility of these "super-U-boats." HABITABILITY
German designers and bui.lders had combined to produce a. U-boat which was capable of keeping a.t sea. for a. very long time. There was no doubt that German systems of training young men and officers would produce efficient personnel, but neither fanaticism nor short-time training could produce a personnel which could be trusted below the surface for several months on end without risk of revolt against the discomfort and lack of privacy which has always been considered the price of service in submarines in all • naVIes. If a. submarine is designed to remain ~t sea-and submerged- for very long periods, one of the primary considerations must be habitability. If men have to live and work in a machine, there is no sense in producing a perfect machine if the men cannot live and work in it with the same human endurance as the endurance of the machine. Examination of the type "21 " U-boat shows that the Germans were fully aware of this truth. In parenthesis it may be remarked that this solicitude for the comfort and wellbeing of the personnel was a direct antithesis of that in the surface ships of the German Navy of the last war, in which living conditions for the crews were reduced to the lowest compatible with short periods at sea. and long periods in harbour. It was this German philosophy of living conditions which allowed them to subdivide their ships to an extent which reduced enormously their chances of being sunk, but at the same time reduced their seagoing efficiency, except for sorties of short duration. One remembers that this was one of the fact ors which limited
the operations of the High Seas Fleet in t he last war. In the type " 21 " U-boat there is no necessity for any members of the crew to work on what British submarine personnel used to call " the hot bunk principle "-that is, turning in to the bunk of the man who has relieved one on watch. In " U. 3008" there is a comfortable sprung bunk for every member of the crew-and every bunk is provided with a. fitted mattress. Moreover, all the 'living spaces are enclosed in light fireproofed wooden bulkheads and are on either side of a central gangway running right through the submarine and deviating from the centre line only in the control room, where it has to skirt the casing of the big power-operated periscope. Officers and men therefore have a degree of privacy far beyond that usual in submarines, where a " mess" may also be a gangway, and sometimes even a. table set up in the torpedo-working compa.rtment, so that it is " ' fish' for breakfast, 'fish ' for dinner, ' fish' for supper, ' fish ' for every meal ! '' There is little doubt that this system of enclosed messes and a clear central gangway makes for efficiency as well as comfort, for it does away with the necessity for men slinging hammocks or sleeping on mess tables or on the deck-practices which are apt to turn a. gangway into a complicated assault course in emergency. H ULL SECTION
The type "21 " U-boa.t has a. novel and peculiar hull section, which also increases the spaciousness and habitability of the submarine. This hull section is ca.lled " figure of eight," which almost exactly describes it. The section amidships consists of the usual circular section pressure hull, with beneath it another smaller circular section pressure hull. These two circular section hulls are not separate, and, in effect, they form part of the same " figure of eight " sectioned pressure hull. Each part is not only immensely strong in itself; they are joined by very strong plating which is worked on a curve so that there is no weakness at the junction of the two parts of the hull. This peculiar hull form increases stability, and also very considerably increases the space within the upper part of the pressure hull, which cont ains the living quarters. This is because the electric batteries, the big refrigerat ed store rooms, the internal ballast tanks for trimming purposes, and a certain amount of the auxiliary machinery have been banished to the lower part of the pressure hull section. The result is that the whole diameter of the upper part of the ·hull, except where it is cut off by the flat deck across the junction of the two parts, is available space. In normal submarine practice rather more than one-third of the hull section is taken up by the batteries and internal ballast tanks. In the German submarines of this type the space within the pressure hull is still further increased by the simple expedient of placing the frames outside instead of inside the plating. This method of construction adds, in • effect, some lOin. to the useful diameter of the inside of the pressure hull. At the same time it simplifies to a very great degree the fitting of pipes, electric cables, and fittings. This simplification means, of course, that less space is taken up in the actual fitting of the essential requirements, as well as the refinements, and it makes the fitting of built-in furniture a. simple matter, instead of an art which often appears to have been practised by a Torquemada with an apostle of discomfort at his elbow. Technically, of course, a hull with the
3 frames fitted externally is not as strong as a hull with internal frames. In the German design, however, this is more than made up for by the use of larger and stronger frames. When all is said and done, the size of an internal frame is strictly limited by the amount of space which can be allotted to it within the submarine's hull-a consideration which does not arise in the case of external frames. Any weakness in this design is therefore more than compensated by the fitting of larger and stronger frames, for the size of these ext ernal frames is immaterial. The frames in this type of U-boat are, in fact, nearly twice the size of those in the average British submarine. The plating of the pressure hull, comprising both the upper and lower sections, has a minimum thickness of 1·lin., and this is increased to about 1tin. in certain places where weakness would otherwise be caused by penetrations of the plating, such as around the hatches . THE OuTER SKIN
Built round the " figure of eight " pressure hull and over the external framing of the hull is the outer skin of the submarine, which gives the vessel a. very fine streamlined form . Between the outer hull and the pressure hull are the main ballast t anks and the compensated fuel tanks, in both of which the internal pressure is automatically equalised with the sea. pressure when diving, so that the outer hull can safely be built of light plating. This, of course, is normal submarine practice. It is interesting to note that in this type of U-boat 'there are no Kingston valves at the bottom of the main ballast tanks. These are open to' the sea at the bottom, so that the suomarine when on the surface is "riding on the vents "-that is, prevented from losing buoyancy by the air lock trapped and held in the main ballast t anks by the vents. This system, which is by no means new, has the advantage that only one valve for each tank has to be opened in order to submerge, even if the submarine has not been previously brought to a condition of instant readiness for diving. The vents are, of course, operated by tele~p.otor from a panel of levers in the control room. While considering the streamlining of this U-boat it is of interest that the U-boats of this type differ from the normal German submarine practice in that their forward hydroplanes are above water when in surface trim and turn in to the casing when not in use. The usual German practice has been for U-boats to have their forward hydroplanes fixed in the " turned out " position and " drowned "-that is, set low down on the hull below the torpedo tubes, so that they are always below water. In the type "21 " U-boat the designers ha.ve adopted exactly the opposite principle. The whole of the conning tower and bridge structure is very carefully streamlined. The bridge itself is covered with light armour plating as a protection against machine gun attack from the air, and this, of course, adds to its streamlines. In this armoured top to the bridge there are two spaces, one on each side of the bridge, for the heads and shoulders of the look-outs. Just before these there is a central " hole in the roof," through which projects a simple type of night torpedo sight. This sight is fitted with a. pair of large night binoculars, which are immensely heavy. The reason is that they are water and pressuretight, and are also tested to a depth of 900ft. Thus they can safely be left in place on the night sight without fear of becoming flooded and useless when the U-boat has to " crash dive." The Germans seem to go to great lengths in •
their streamlining, and when the "schnorkel" came into use and led to the U-boats remaining under water throughout their operational trips, so that quick diving and quick surfacing lost their importance, they seized the opportunity of increasing the streamlining of the
superstructure of their U-boats by doing away with the flooding and draining ports in the free-flooding structure. In some Uboats one can see where patches have been welded in to eradicate these ports.
the only colonists to arrive of their own accord were the " Crista.os novos, " or newly baptised Jews, who preferred to risk the uncertainties of Brazil rather than to endure persecution in Europe. They, too, had a. far-reaching effect on the future of this land. Modern Brazil can be said to date from the year 1808; Napoleon invaded Portugal, causing Do m J oao, its ruler, to flee from his country and to seek sanctuary in Brazil . Thus Brazil became an empire, a striking fact unique in Latin American history ; Dom J oao returned to Lisbon, his mantle falling on Dom Pedro, who thereupon became regent. Then an astonishing event took place: Portuguese rule was overthrown and Dom Pedro created Emperor P edro I. Thus a rich and powerful Imperial court came into being, overshadowing in magnificence that of the mother country. During the nineteenth century immigration flourished on a huge scale to meet the labour demands of an expanding country ; Italians developed ao
(To be continued)
An Engineer Looks
By ROLT HAMMOND, A.C.G.I., Assoc. M . Inst. C.E. No. I I O DE JANEIRO is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Art and imagination have been perfectly mingled to bestow upon this city of nearly two million souls, the second largest in Latin America and capital of the United States of Brazil, its remarkable character. Its amazingly rapid growth during the last h alf century is an index of that spirit of enterprise and restless energy which animates modern Brazil, a country abounding in rich natural resources. In Rio itself the Governm ent Buildings, the Municipal Theatre, the School of Art, and the Supreme Court of Law show by their varied styles of architecture the many different influences which have contributed to the making of this great country; a note of extreme modernity is struck by the building of the Press Association, in which the influence of Le Corbusier is reflected. Rio's show street is the A venida Rio Branco, laid out on the finest principles of modern city planning, surpassed only by a promenade of white marble stretching almost unbroken for a distance of 5 miles. Rio is a symbol of Brazil as a whole, a country of sharp contrasts, exemplified by the fact that the primeval forest reaches to the very back blocks of the city ; within a few miles of this ultra-modern metropolis dwell primitive tribes living in little better conditions than those of their remote forefathers. The United States of Brazil is in reality a sub-continent, comprising nearly half of South America and covering an area sixtyfive times that of England and greater than that of the United States. It is the fourth largest nation in the world, its frontiers touching every nation on the continent f'xcept Ecuador and Chile. Brazilian history is full of romance and flamboyant exuberance, but it is a great mistake to imagine that an atmosphere of opera bouffe is typical of the Latin American republics; this is an unfortunate miscon-
ception widely held in Great Britain. The country was discovered by Pedro Alvares Cabral, known as the Portuguese Columbus, in 1500, and early colonisation centred on the port of Bahia ; in 1552 Thome de Souza landed at Rio, exclaiming, " Tudo e graca que se dele pode decir "-" Everything here is of a beauty which can hardly be described."
FIG . 1-RIO
Manoel de Nobrega, a Jesuit, had a profound influence on the early development of Brazil ; in 1549 he was Provincial Go.vernor of Bahia, and he displayed remarkable administrative abilities, both in this task and in the founding of Sao Paulo, the Manchester of modern Brazil. In order to develop the country, the Portuguese imported large numbers of slaves ;
P aulo, Germans flocked to the rolling cattle lands of Rio Grande do Sui. Slavery was abolished in 1888 and a year later this was the main political issue which resulted in the dethronement of Dom Pedro II, who had nevertheless ruled his country in an exemplary manner for nearly half a century. The constitution of the Republic, the Estados Unidos do Brasil, was laid down in 1891 and was modelled closely on that of the United States. Recent Brazilian history is closely linked with the meteoric rise to pow~r of that forceful personality, Getulio Vargas, who has worked miracles in developing the resources of his country and in bringing about many far-reaching social and political reforms. His dynamic leadership has done much towards extending the industrialisation of Brazil. Irt early colonial times, it was perhaps extremely fortunate that the economic structure of Brazil was founded on such pursuits as forestry, farming, and stock raising ; it is significant, for example, that the country derives its name from the wood known as " brazil," a. dyewood found in the region of Pernambuco. These agricultural activities were well established during the early days of colonial expansion, when land was so cheap that it could almost be had for tht• asking. The country was mercifully spared the cruelties and oppressions inflicted by the conquistadores a.nd treasure seekers on Me xi(O