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Energy Technologies Institute www.eti.co.uk
CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE
HELPING TO ACCELERATE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CCS IN THE UK
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WHY CCS? CCS Next Generation Gas Capture Technology See page 10 for the full story
WHAT WE ARE DOING? » INVESTING IN INNOVATION TO REDUCE THE COST OF CAPTURE AND REDUCE THE RISKS OF STORAGE » BUILDING KNOWLEDGE TO UNDERSTAND THE INFRASTRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS FOR CCS APPLICATION IN THE UK » BUILDING KNOWLEDGE TO CREATE CONFIDENCE AMONGST INVESTORS, POLICY MAKERS AND INDUSTRY TOWARDS CCS OPPORTUNITIES
We have modelled the UK energy system out to 2050. Without a national CCS infrastructure, the cost of reaching UK Climate Change targets will double from a minimum of around £30bn per year in 2050. This is the equivalent of an additional 2p per kWh on all UK energy use in 2050. Therefore the economic prize of CCS to the UK is potentially considerable. Our calculations show that each five years of delay in implementing CCS until 2030 will add the equivalent of £4bn per annum to the total cost of the UK energy system. The importance of CCS lies in its capability and flexibility to reduce carbon emissions from a large range of activities. It also has relatively low costs when practiced at scale.
For example in the power sector, a fossil fuel sector fitted with CCS can not only provide clean electricity at an attractive baseload price, but it can also operate in a role which offers the lowest cost additional power when peaks in demand occur. Whilst there are other potential affordable ways of power generation, CCS might be the only practical option for avoiding industrial emissions. CCS allows for the capture and storage of greenhouse gases from the use of bioenergy, which result in a net reduction in the greenhouse gases in the air, or “negative emissions”. This could reduce the need to decarbonise other activities which are much more expensive to tackle.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CCS LIES IN ITS CAPABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS FROM A LARGE RANGE OF ACTIVITIES. IT ALSO HAS RELATIVELY LOW COSTS WHEN PRACTICED AT SCALE
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WHAT HAVE WE DONE TO DATE? CONTINUED »
CCS SECTOR DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS IN THE UK » Scenario modelling project to
illustrate how the UK can build the CCS sector by 2030
» Extended previous analysis by
developing three ambitious but deliverable scenarios to achieve around 10GW of CCS power
» 10GW scale deployment is
achievable and affordable, capturing and storing around 50 million tonnes of CO2 per annum from power and industry by 2030
This project, led by Element Energy with support from Pöyry Management Consulting and an industry/government steering group, set out to identify and analyse three alternative scenarios for the development of a 10GW-scale CCS sector by 2030, capturing around 50 million tonnes of CO2 per annum from power and industrial sources. The analysis used three ambitious, but deliverable, sector scenarios. The scenarios help to identify the challenges and steps required to overcome them in the context of real geographies and dependencies, plausible potential projects for both power and industrial CO2 abatement, realistic decision timelines and developing project economics.
Comparison of the scenarios: transport and storage networks in 2030 2030
2030 CNS aquifer 2
EOR field 3 36 Mt
11 Mt Potential EOR development
The project confirmed that developing a 10GW scale CCS sector is feasible and affordable through a number of different pathways. By making use of stores and transport infrastructure developed under DECC’s Commercialisation Programme, later projects can achieve a competitive cost for low carbon electricity, at or below £100/MWh by 2025.
CNS aquifer 2
Shoreline terminals Storage only EOR fields New offshore pipelines New onshore pipelines Re-use offshore pipelines Re-use onshore pipelines CNS Central North Sea SNS Southern North Sea
EOR field 5 9 Mt
EOR field 4
Potential EOR development
New parallel onshore pipeline 17 Mt
EIS hydrocarbon 29 Mt
9 Mt SNS aquifer 3
SNS aquifer 2
The £110k project was led by Element Energy with support from Pöyry Management Consulting
CNS aquifer 2
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WHAT HAVE WE DONE TO DATE?
MEASUREMENT, MODELLING AND VERIFICATION OF CO2 STORAGE (MMV)
FLEXIBLE HYDROGEN POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS
» £5m collaborative project to
» Project to increase the
develop a marine monitoring system for underwater CCS sites
» Monitoring system will use
marine robotics to provide assurance CCS sites are secure
» Industrially led project supported by top UK academic groups
The project is led by Fugro GEOS in collaboration with Sonardyne, the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) and the British Geological Survey (BGS) both part of NERC, Plymouth Marine Laboratory and the University of Southampton. The ETI will invest £1m in the first phase of the project. Although there are existing technology components which can detect CO2 in a marine environment, there are no integrated, cost-effective and commercially available systems which can currently reliably record and report anomalies in the level of CO2 in the sea above a large store. The need to introduce capability for the robust monitoring of underground CO2 storage sites is in response to legislation such as the European Union’s directive on CO2 storage. This states that any storage operator must monitor for potential leaks and examine whether any leak is damaging to the environment or human health. Current research and evidence shows that leakage is highly unlikely. However if CO2 did escape, it would be difficult to predict with certainty exactly where it would reach the seabed. This is where mobile autonomous robots are very useful, patrolling over large areas at relatively low cost.
The project is led by Fugro GEOS in collaboration with Sonardyne, the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) and the British Geological Survey (both part of NERC), Plymouth Marine Laboratory and the University of Southampton
understanding of the economics and potential use of energy systems involving low carbon hydrogen production, storage and flexible turbine technology
» Mapping of suitable
hydrogen storage salt cavern sites in the UK
» Potential to fill the gap
between base load nuclear plant and low carbon power generation
This project has increased the understanding of the economics and potential use of energy systems involving low carbon hydrogen production, storage and flexible turbine technology. Our energy system modelling work suggests that systems such as these could provide a valuable contribution to the future energy mix, filling the gap between base load nuclear plant and low carbon power generation. The £300k project was led by global engineering and construction company Amec Foster Wheeler, in collaboration with the BGS. The project assessed the economics of a range of flexible power generation systems which involve the production of hydrogen (with CCS) from coal, biomass or natural gas, its intermediate storage (e.g. in salt caverns deep underground) and production of power in flexible turbines. The work included mapping of potentially suitable hydrogen storage salt cavern sites in and around the UK and has provided us with a flexible economic modelling tool to assess the range of possible options.
£300k The £300k project was led by global engineering and construction company Amec Foster Wheeler
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WHAT HAVE WE DONE TO DATE? CONTINUED »
SALINE AQUIFER DRILLING PROJECT WITH NATIONAL GRID
» £2m investment in the UK’s first drilling assessment
» Advancement of the safe design
of a saline formation site
and operation of gas turbines using hydrogen-based fuels
» Site is 70km off the Yorkshire coast
» Identifying the bounds of safe
» Involved drilling a well in the seabed to gather data
design and operation
» Aim to increase the range of fuels that can be safely used in power and heat generating plant
We co-invested £2m in a National Grid project which has carried out the UK’s first drilling assessment of a saline formation site for the storage of CO2, at a site 70km off the Yorkshire coast.
The results of the drilling have confirmed the previous assessment that the store is very large and capable of storing carbon dioxide from several sources over a number of decades. The site is close to the shore and, importantly, near to two major clusters of CO2 emitters in the Humberside and Teeside region making it an ideal storage location. The site is planned to provide storage for the White Rose CCS project at Draz, and is large enough to take CO2 from several more projects.
Through new modelling and large-scale experimental work the project is identifying the bounds of safe design and operation of high efficiency combined cycle gas turbine and combined heat and power systems operating on a range of fuels with high and variable concentrations of hydrogen. The goals of the project are to increase the range of fuels that can be safely used in power and heat generating plant. The project involves the Health and Safety Laboratory, an agency of the Health and Safety Executive, in collaboration with Imperial Consultants, the consulting arm of Imperial College London.
The multi million pound project represents a major step forward in the creation of a CCS industry in the UK for multiple power stations and industrial sites, to store their CO2 rather than release into the atmosphere. National Grid led the drilling programme at the identified saline formation, a layer of porous sandstone rock over 1km below the seabed. The operation, using standard oil and gas drilling activities, involved drilling a well in the seabed to gather data to confirm that CO2 can be safely and permanently stored at the site, while also confirming the scale and economics of the store.
Hydrogen is likely to be an increasingly important fuel component in the future. This £3.5m project is designed to advance the safe design and operation of gas turbines, reciprocating engines and combined heat and power systems using hydrogen-based fuels.
The Saline Aquifer Drilling Project, 70km off the Yorkshire coast.
£3.5m The project involves the Health and Safety Laboratory, an agency of the Health and Safety Executive, in collaboration with Imperial Consultants, the consulting arm of Imperial College London
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WHAT HAVE WE DONE TO DATE? CONTINUED »
CCS SYSTEMS MODELLING TOOL-KIT
CCS MINERALISATION » Detailed study of availability and distribution of suitable materials to economically capture and store CO2 emissions
» Abundance of materials to meet mitigation targets
» Challenges remain to make the process economically attractive and to reduce its energy use
This £1m project, launched in May 2010 carried out a detailed study of the availability and distribution of suitable minerals across the UK along with studying the technologies that could be used to economically capture and store CO2 emissions. CCS by mineralisation has been identified by leading researchers as a promising additional method of sequestering CO2 emissions. Minerals and CO2 can react together to permanently store CO2 as a solid carbonate product, which can then be safely stored, used as an aggregate or turned into useful end products such as bricks or filler for concrete. The project consortium involved Caterpillar, BGS and the University of Nottingham. The objective was to investigate the potential for CCS Mineralisation to mitigate at least 2% of current UK CO2 emissions and 2% of worldwide emissions over a 100year period. The project has found that there is an abundance of suitable minerals available in the UK and worldwide to meet these mitigation targets. However, challenges remain to make the capture process economically attractive and to reduce its energy use. Significant niche opportunities exist where waste materials are used as feedstock and/or the process produces value-added products, but markets would not be at the level required to meet the mitigation targets.
The project consortium involved Caterpillar, BGS and the University of Nottingham
» Project to support the future
design, operation and roll-out of cost effective CCS systems in the UK
» A modelling tool-kit capable
of simulating the operation of all aspects of the CCS chain
» Support initial conceptual
design and eventual detailed design and operation of CCS systems
A £3m project that has helped support the future design, operation and roll-out of cost effective CCS systems in the UK
A £3m project has helped support the future design, operation and roll-out of cost effective CCS systems in the UK. The two-and-a-half year project launched in September 2011 has created a modelling tool-kit capable of simulating the operation of all aspects of the CCS chain, from capture and transport to storage. It involved modelling technology provider Process Systems Enterprise (PSE), energy consultancy E4tech, and industrial partners EDF Energy, E.ON, Rolls-Royce and CO2DeepStore, who expect to be involved in capturing, compressing, transporting and storing CO2 in the future. The project has resulted in a commercial product (gCCS) built on PSE’s gPROMS modelling platform. The tool-kit will be used to support the initial conceptual design and eventual detailed design and operation of CCS systems by helping to identify and understand system-wide operational issues such as the effects of power station ramp-up or ramp-down on downstream storage operation, or the effect of downstream disturbances on power generation.
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WHAT HAVE WE DONE TO DATE? CONTINUED »
CCS NEXT GENERATION GAS CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY
CCS NEXT GENERATION COAL CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY
» Project to accelerate the
» FEED Study for a CCS plant
development of advanced carbon capture technologies for gas-fired power stations
» Contribution of gas-fired power
stations to the UK energy mix appears set to continue to grow rapidly over the next decade
This project seeks to accelerate the development of advanced carbon capture technologies for gas-fired power stations. In 2012 we launched the project with Inventys Thermal Technologies in collaboration with the Howden Group and Doosan Power Systems. The project focused on a small scale demonstrator prototype, laboratory work and a technoeconomic assessment to confirm the projected benefits of the technologies use on gas-fired power stations. Inventys is now working on initial large-scale applications for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
capable of capturing up to 95% of CO2 emissions from coal fired power stations
» Project aimed at pre-combustion » Involved CO2 removal
by physical separation
» Focusing on post combustion
looking at designs to be used on new build or retrofitted onto combined cycle gas turbine power stations
The project with Inventys Thermal Technologies in collaboration with the Howden Group and Doosan Power Systems
£3.5m Costain has produced a front end engineering design study for a demonstration unit, working with the University of Edinburgh and Imperial College, London
We have invested £3.5m to date in a project with Costain to design a carbon capture pilot plant capable of capturing up to 95% of CO2 emissions from coal fired power stations. The project is aimed at pre-combustion carbon capture applications, involving CO2 removal by physical separation. Costain has produced a front end engineering design study for a demonstration unit, working with the University of Edinburgh and Imperial College, London.
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WHAT HAVE WE DONE TO DATE? CONTINUED »
UK STORAGE APPRAISAL PROJECT (UKSAP) » Produced the UK’s first CO2 storage appraisal database » Allows for more informed decisions on the economics of storage opportunities
» Licensed to The Crown Estate and the British Geological Survey (BGS) and publically available under the brand of CO2 Stored
This £4m project was delivered by a consortium of project partners from across academia and industry – LR Senergy Limited, BGS, the Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage (University of Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt University), Durham University, GeoPressure Technology Ltd, Geospatial Research Ltd, Imperial College London, RPS Energy and Element Energy Ltd. We have agreed a licence with The Crown Estate and the BGS to host and further develop an online database of mapped UK offshore carbon dioxide storage capacity produced by UKSAP. This is now publically available under the name of CO2 Stored. It can be accessed via www.co2stored.co.uk.
The web-enabled database – the first of its type anywhere in the world – contains geological data, storage estimates, risk assessments and economics of nearly 600 potential CO2 storage units of depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and saline aquifers around the UK. It enables interested stakeholders to access information about the storage resource and to make more informed decisions related to the roll out of CCS in the UK.
STRATEGIC UK CCS STORAGE APPRAISAL
CO2 point sources (top 50) Saline aquifer (confined) Saline aquifer (open) Depleted hydrocarbon fields
This £4m project was delivered by a Size MT consortium of project partners from 10 across academia and industry – LR 100 Senergy Limited, BGS, the Scottish 1,000 Centre for Carbon Storage (University of Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt University), Durham University, GeoPressure Technology Ltd, Geospatial Research Ltd, Imperial College London, RPS Energy and Element Energy Ltd.
» The project will identify
the next phase of sites under the North Sea most suitable for storing CO2
Aberdeen-based consultancy Pale Blue Dot Energy supported by Axis Well Technology and Costain is delivering a project which will identify the next phase of sites deep under the seabed in UK waters to store CO2 emissions from coal and gas power stations and heavy industry plants. The 12 month project is being delivered by the ETI and funded with up to £2.5m from the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC). It will progress the appraisal of five selected storage sites towards readiness for Final Investment Decisions, de-risking these stores for potential future storage developers. All the results from this project will be made publicly available to support roll out of CCS in the UK.
The project will identify the next phase of sites under the North Sea most suitable for storing CO2 emissions
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INSIGHTS ARISING FROM THE PROGRAMME
ANY LOW CARBON TRANSITION SHOULD INCLUDE CCS AND BIOENERGY
DELAY IN CCS IMPLEMENTATION INCREASES COSTS
By 2030 the UK should seek to produce 10GW of CSS capacity
Including them halves the cost of meeting UK climate change targets
10GW of CCS capacity could capture 50million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year from power and industry by 2030
Through the need to deploy higher cost technologies to cut emissions.
...is enough to supply electricity for approximately 15million households. This is feasible and affordable if built upon co-ordinated cluster and hub development.
For decarbonisation no CCS means greater reliance on nuclear and offshore wind
INFRASTRUCTURE IS KEY
By using the DECC Commercialisation projects transport and storage infrastructure you can unlock future cost reductions and increase strategic build out options
Failure to deploy CCS entirely would imply a doubling of the annual cost of carbon abatement from 1-2% of GDP by 2050
THE VALUE OF CCS COMES FROM ITS MULTIPLE OPERATIONS
Power generation, capturing industrial emissions, providing low carbon energy through gasification and delivering ‘negative emissions’ POWER GENERATION
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ABOUT THE ETI
The Energy Technologies Institute is a partnership between global energy and engineering companies and the UK Government.
Its role is to act as a conduit between academia, industry and government to accelerate the development of low carbon technologies. It brings together engineering projects that develop affordable, secure and sustainable technologies to help the UK address its longterm emissions reduction targets as well as delivering nearer term benefits.
Andrew Green Programme Manager – Carbon Capture and Storage 01509 20 20 54 [email protected]
Dennis Gammer Strategy Manager – Carbon Capture and Storage 01509 20 20 10 [email protected]